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【转载】摄影师需要烂熟于心的12条法则  

2016-01-06 06:59:48|  分类: 摄影知识 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Memorize This!
By Jason Schneider
November 2004

12 essential facts, formulas, and photographic rules

What happens when your systems go belly-up, when all of that cutting-edge technology dies and you must rely on (gasp!) your own knowledge? It pays to have these basics in your head. They can get you out of a jam and help you get good shots when nothing else will.

1、阳光16法则。即在拍摄处于明媚均匀的阳光下的主体时,快门定为感光度倒数,光圈为F16为宜。以此为基准,可以估算出,在海滩用F22光圈,有云的晴天用F11等。

1. Sunny 16 rule: The basic exposure for an average scene taken on a bright, sunny day is f/16 at a shutter speed equivalent to one over the ISO setting—that is, f/16 at 1/100 sec at ISO 100. From this you can interpolate, and try f/22 at the beach, f/11 on a cloudy-bright day, etc.

2、月光11,8,和5.6法则。摄影月亮的曝光组合有多种。但最为人乐于使用的是11、8和5.6组合。当快门速度为感光度倒数时,满月用F11光圈,半月和3/4月分别用F8和F5.6.

2. Moony 11, 8, and 5.6 rules: There are many different rules that work well when shooting the moon. One favorite for a proper exposure of a full moon is f/11 at one over the ISO setting. For pictures of a half moon, use the same shutter speed at f/8, and for a quarter moon, use the same shutter speed at f/5.6.

3、相机抖动法则。安全的快门速度是焦距的倒数。如使用50毫米的镜头时,如果手持拍摄,速度至少要在1/60以上为宜(当然,防抖头不算)。如果低于此速度,请使用闪光灯,脚架,或为相机找其他支持物。

3. Camera shake rule: The slowest shutter speed at which you can safely handhold a camera is one over the focal length of the lens in use. As shutter speeds get slower, camera shake is likely to result in an increasing loss of sharpness. So, if you're using a 50mm lens, shoot at 1/60 sec or faster. Not enough light? Use a flash, tripod, or brace your camera against a solid object.

4、18%灰测光。用18%中灰板测光会带来最好的效果。如果没有灰板,可以将手掌摊开面向阳光,对手掌测光读数,然后加一档曝光拍摄。(不同的肤色对结果的差别几乎连一档都达不到。)

4. Anatomical gray card Metering off an 18-percent neutral gray card is a good way to get a midtone reading that will give you a good overall exposure of a scene. Forgot your gray card? Hold your open hand up so it's facing the light, take a reading off your palm, open up one stop, and shoot. (Various skin tones rarely account for even a full-stop difference.)

5、景深法则。对焦点取在整个景深的前三分之一位置可以得到最大的景深。因为焦点后的景深是焦点前的二倍。

5. Depth of field rules: When focusing on a deep subject, focus on a point about a third of the way into the picture to maximize depth of field, because the depth-of-field zone behind that point is about twice as deep as the depth-of-field zone in front of it. This works for all apertures and focal lengths, but the smaller the aperture and the shorter the focal length, and the greater the distance you shoot at, the greater the depth of field.

6、数码冲印尺寸法则。数码照片最佳的扩印尺寸应该不超过长与宽的像素数之和除以200。如果需要影展素质的照片,请除以250。

6. Largest digital print rule: To calculate in inches the largest photo-quality print you can make with a digital camera, divide the vertical and horizontal pixel counts (see your manual) by 200. For critical applications, or if you want exhibition-quality prints, divide the pixel counts by 250.

7、曝光法则。经典的建议是:保证高光区曝光准确,低光区随他去。这一建议适用于反转和数码相机。而对负片,特别是彩色负片,最好增曝一档。

7. Exposure rules: The classic advice is, "Expose for the highlights, and let the shadows take care of themselves." This works with slide film and digital. But with negative film, especially color negative, you're better off overexposing by one stop.

8、快速闪光输出法则。在使用没有自动输出控制的闪光灯时,将闪光灯的感光度设为胶卷的二倍,对主体测光,机身选光圈整档,闪光灯设同样光圈。这种设置下,照片的阴影区会比主体的亮度低一档。

8. Quick flash-fill rule: When using an automatic flash unit that doesn't provide auto flash-fill ratios, set the flash's ISO dial to twice the ISO you're using. Meter the scene, select an f-stop, set the autoflash aperture to the same f-stop, and shoot. The resulting 2:1 flash-fill ratio will produce filled shadows one stop darker than the main subject.

9、闪光距离法则。距离乘2,感光度乘4。比如,你的闪光灯在感光度100时的有效距离为20英尺。如果你需要闪光距离达到40英尺,则需要使用感光度400的胶卷。

9. Flash range rule: Want to know how much extra flash range you get by going to a faster ISO? The rule is, "Double the distance, four times the speed." For example: If your flash is good to 20 feet at ISO 100 (film or digital), it will be good to 40 feet at ISO 400.

10、像素翻番法则。要使数码相机分辨率增倍,像素数要翻两番。

10. Megapixel multiplier rule: To double the resolution in a digital camera, you must increase the number of megapixels by a factor of four—not two. Why? The number of pixels in both the vertical and horizontal dimensions must be doubled to double the pixel density across the image sensor.

11、动态捕捉法则:(这条怎么说我再琢磨琢磨。)

11. Action-stopping rules: To stop action moving across the frame that's perpendicular to the lens axis, you need shutter speeds two stops faster than action moving toward or away from you. For action moving at a 45-degree angle to the lens axis, you can use a shutter speed one stop slower. For example: If a person running toward you at moderate speed can be stopped at 1/125 sec, you'll need a shutter speed of 1/500 sec to stop the subject moving across the frame, and a shutter speed of 1/250 sec to stop him if moving obliquely with respect to the camera.

12、日落测光法则。拍摄落日时,要对落日上部测光,但取景器中不要取到太阳。如果想让照片上的日落看上去比实际晚一小时,可在曝光补偿中减1。

12. Sunset rule: To get a properly exposed sunset, meter the area directly above the sun (without including the sun). If you want the scene to look like it's a half-hour later, stop down by one f-stop, or set exposure compensation to minus one.

美国《大众摄影》杂志文,Victorinox译。不恰当的地方,请大家指教。
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